Prof. Azy Barak

Department of Counseling and Human Development

University of Haifa

Azy Barak
Faculty of Education Logo

References Related to the Internet & Psychology

Online Support Groups & Self-Help

Aardoom, J. J., Dingemans, A. E., Boogaard, L. H., & Van Furth, E. F. (2014). Internet and patient empowerment in individuals with symptoms of an eating disorder: A cross-sectional investigation of a pro-recovery focused e-community. Eating Behaviors, 15, 350-356.

Adams-Price, C. E., & Chandler, S. (2000). The star fleet ladies auxiliary: Evolution of an online women’s mailing list. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, 811-816.

Adler, C. L., & Zarchin, Y. R. (2002). The “virtual focus group”: Using the Internet to reach pregnant women on home bed rest. Journal of Obstetric, Gyneocologic and Neonatal Nursing, 31, 418-427.

Aho, A. L., Paavilainen, E., & Kaunonen, M. (2012). Mothers’ experiences of peer support via an Internet discussion forum after the death of a child. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 26, 417-426.

Aiken, M., & Waller, B. (2000). Flaming among first-time group support system users. Information & Management, 37, 95-100.

Alexander, S. C., Peterson, J. L., & Hollingshead, A. B. (2003). Help is at your keyboard: Support groups on the Internet. In L. R. Frey (Ed.), Group communication in context: Studies of bona fide groups (pp. 309-334). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Alpers, G. W., Winzelberg, A. J., Classen, C., Roberts, H., Dev, P., Koopman, C., & Taylor, C. B. (2005). Evaluation of computerized text analysis in an Internet breast cancer support group. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 361-376.

Anderberg, P. (2007). Peer assistance for personal assistance: Analysis of online discussions about personal assistance from a Swedish Web forum for disabled people. Disability & Society, 22, 251-265.

Andersson, G., Bergström, J., Buhrman, M., Carlbring, P., Holländare, F., Kaldo, V., Nilsson-Ihrfelt, E., Paxling, B., Strom, L., & Waara, J. (2008). Development of a new approach to guided self-help via the Internet: The Swedish experience. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26, 161-181.

Attard, A., & Coulson, N. S. (2012). A thematic analysis of patient communication in Parkinson’s disease online support group discussion forums. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 500-506.

Baams, L., Jonas, K. J., Utz, S., Bos, H. M. W., & van der Vuurst, L. (2011). Internet use and online social support among same sex attracted individuals of different ages. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1820-1827.

Bacon, E. S., Condon, E. H., & Frensler, J. I. (2000). Young widows’ experience with an Internet self-help group. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 38 (7), 24-33.

Balkhi, A. M., Reid, A. M., McNamara, J. P., & Geffken, G. R. (2013). The diabetes online community: The importance of forum use in parents of children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes, 15, 408–415.

Bane, C. M. H., Haymaker, C. M. B., & Zinchuk, J. (2005). Social support as a moderator of the big-fish-in-a-little-pond effect in online self-help support groups. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 10, 239-261.

Barak, A. (1999). Psychological applications on the Internet: A discipline on the threshold of a new millennium. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 8, 231-246.

Barak, A. (2007). Emotional support and suicide prevention through the Internet: A field project report. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 971-984.

Barak, A. (2010). The psychological role of the Internet in mass disasters: Past evidence and future planning. In A. Brunet, A. R. Ashbaugh, & C. F. Herbert (Eds.), Internet use in the aftermath of trauma (pp. 23-44). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press.

Barak, A., Boneh, O., & Dolev-Cohen, M. (2010). Factors underlying participants' gains in online support groups. In A. Blachnio, A. Przepiorka, & T. Rowiński (Eds.), Internet in psychological research (pp. 17-38). Warsaw, Poland: Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University Press.

Barak, A., & Boniel-Nissim, M. (2010). Using forums to enhance client peer support. In K. Anthony, D. A. N. Nagel, & S. Goss (Eds.), The use of technology in mental health applications ethics and practice (pp. 47-55). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

Barak, A., Boniel-Nissim, M., & Suler, J. (2008). Fostering empowerment in online support groups. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 1867-1883.

Barak, A., & Dolev-Cohen, M. (2006). Does activity level in online support groups for distressed adolescents determine emotional relief. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 6, 186-190.

Barker, K. K. (2008). Electronic support groups, patient-consumers, and medicalization: The case of contested illness. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49, 20-36.

Bar-Lev, S. (2008). "We are here to give you emotional support": Performing emotions in an online HIV/AIDS support group. Qualitative Health Research, 18, 509-521.

Bar-Lev, S. (2010). ‘Do you feel sorry for him?’: Gift relations in an HIV/AIDS on-line support forum. Health, 42, 147-161.

Barrera, M., Jr., Glasgow, R. E., McKay, H. G., Boles, S. M., & Feil, E. G. (2002). Do Internet-based support interventions change perceptions of social support? An experimental trial of approaches for supporting diabetes self-management. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 637-654.

Bartlett, Y. K., & Coulson, N. S. (2011). An investigation into the empowerment effects of using online support groups and how this affects health professional/patient communication. Patient Education and Counseling, 83, 113-119.

Bauer, R., Bauer, M., Spiessl, H., & Kagerbauer, T. (2013). Cyber-support: An analysis of online self-help forums (online self-help forums in bipolar disorder). Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 67, 185-190.

Beaudoin, C. E., & Tao, C. (2007). Benefiting from social capital in online support groups: An empirical study of cancer patients. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 587-590.

Beaudoin, C. E., & Tao, C.-C. (2008). Modeling the impact of online cancer resources on supporters of cancer patients. New Media & Society, 10, 321-344.

Becker, K. L. (2013). Cyberhugs: Creating a voice for chronic pain sufferers through technology. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 123-126.

Bell, R. A., Hu, X., Orrange, S. E., & Kravitz, R. L. (2011). Lingering questions and doubts: Online information-seeking of support forum members following their medical visits. Patient Education and Counseling, 85, 525-528.

Bellafiore, D. R., Colòn, Y., & Rosenberg, P. (2004). Online counseling groups. In R. Kraus, J. Zack & G. Stricker (Eds.), Online counseling: A handbook for mental health professionals (pp. 197-216). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Bender, J. L., Jimenez-Marroquin, M. C., Ferris, L. E., Katz, J., & Jadad, A. R. (2013). Online communities for breast cancer survivors: A review and analysis of their characteristics and levels of use. Supportive Care in Cancer, 21, 1253-1263.

Bender, J. L., Katz, J., Ferris, L. E., & Jadad, A. R. (2013). What is the role of online support from the perspective of facilitators of face-to-face support groups? A multi-method study of the use of breast cancer online communities. Patient Education and Counseling, 93, 472-479.

Bennett, K., Reynolds, J., Christensen, H., & Griffiths, K. M. (2010). E-hub: An online self-help mental health service in the community. Medical Journal of Australia, 192, 48-52.

Berg, M., Adolfsson, A., Ranerup, A., & Sparud-Lundin, C. (2013). Person-centered web support to women with type I diabetes in pregnancy and early motherhood – The development process. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 15, 20-25.

Bewick, B. M., Trusler, K., Mulhern, B., Barkham, M., & Hill, A. J. (2008). The feasibility and effectiveness of a web-based personalised feedback and social norms alcohol intervention in UK university students: A randomised control trial. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 1192-1198.

Billings, D. W., Cook, R. F., Hendrickson, A., & Dove, D. C. (2008). A web-based approach to managing stress and mood disorders in the workforce. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50, 960-968.

Binford-Hopf, R. B., Grange, D. L., Moessner, M., & Bauer, S. (2013). Internet based chat support groups for parents in family-based treatment for adolescent eating disorders: A pilot study. European Eating Disorders Review, 21, 215-223

Blank, T. O., & Adams-Blodnieks, M. (2007). The who and the what of usage of two cancer online communities. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 1249-1257.

Blank, T. O., Schmidt, S. D., Vangsness, S. A., Monteiro, A. K., & Santagata, P. V. (2010). Differences among breast and prostate cancer online support groups. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1400-1404.

Booker, S., Morris, M., & Johnson, A. (2008). Empowered to change: Evidence from a qualitative exploration of a user-informed psycho-educational programme for people with type 1 diabetes. Chronic Illness, 4, 41-53.

Botella, C., Gallego, M. J., Garcia-Palacios, A., Baos, R. M., Quero, S., & Guillen, V. (2008). An Internet-based self-help program for the treatment of fear of public speaking: A case study. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26, 182-202.

Bowker, N. I., & Tuffin, K. (2007). Understanding positive subjectivities made possible online for disabled people. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 36, 63-71.

Bragadóttir, H. (2008). Computer-mediated support group intervention for parents. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40, 32-38.

Braithwaite, D. O.,Waldron, V. R., & Finn, J. (1999). Communication of social support in computer-mediated groups for people with disabilities. Health Communication, 11, 123-151.

Brennan, P. F., Moore, S. M., Bjornsdottir, G., Jones, J., Visovsky, C., & Rogers, M. (2001). HeartCare: An Internet-based information and support system for patient home recovery after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35, 699-708.

Bresnahan, M. J., & Murray-Johnson, L. (2002). The healing web. Health Care for Women International, 23, 398-407.

Broom, A. (2005). The eMale: Prostate cancer, masculinity and online support as a challenge to medical expertise. Journal of Sociology, 41, 87-104.

Bruce, B., Lorig, K., Laurent, D., & Ritter, P. (2005). The impact of a moderated e-mail discussion group on use of complementary and alternative therapies in subjects with recurrent back pain. Patient Education and Counseling, 58, 305-311.

Buchanan, H., & Coulson, N. S. (2007). Accessing dental anxiety online support groups: An exploratory qualitative study of motives and experiences. Patient Education and Counseling, 66, 263-269.

Buchanan, R. J., Huang, C., & Crudden, A. (2012): Use of the Internet by informal caregivers assisting people with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 30, 72-93.

Buis, L. R. (2008). Emotional and informational support messages in an online hospice support community. Computers Informatics Nursing, 26, 358-367.

Buis, L. R., & Whitten, P. (2011). Comparison of social support content within online communities for high-and low-survival-rate cancers. Computers Informatics Nursing, 29, 461-467.

Bull, S. S., Gaglio, B., McKay, H. G., & Glasgow, R. E. (2005). Harnessing the potential of the Internet to promote chronic illness self-management: Diabetes as an example of how well we are doing. Chronic Illness, 1, 143-155.

Bunde, M., Suls, J., Martin, R., & Barnett, K. (2006). Hystersisters online: Social support and social comparison among hysterectomy patients on the Internet. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 271-278.

Bunde, M., Suls, J., R., Martin, & Barnett, K. (2007). Online hysterectomy support: Characteristics of website experiences. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 80-85.

Burns, J. M., Webb, M., Durkin, L. A., & Hickie, I. B. (2010). Reach out central: A serious game designed to engage young men to improve mental health and wellbeing. Medical Journal of Australia, 192, 27-30.

Burri, M., Baujard, V., & Etter, J.-F. (2006). A qualitative analysis of an Internet discussion forum for recent ex-smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 8, 13-19.

Bush, J. P., Huchital, J. R., & Simonian, S. J. (2002). An introduction to program and research initiatives of the STARBRIGHT foundation. Children Health Care, 31, 1-10.

Callejas-Rubio, J.-L., Rios-Fernandez, R., Barnosi-Marín, A.-C., Garcia-Hernandez, F.-J., Vargas-Hitos, J.-A., Camps-Garcia, M.-T., Gonzalez-Nieto, J.-A., Sanchez-Roman, J., Jimenez-Alonso, J., de Ramon Garrido, E., & Otego-Centeno, N. (2014). Health-related Internet use by lupus patients in southern Spain. Clinical Rheumatology, 33, 567-573.

Campbell, K. A., Coulson, N. S., & Buchanan, H. (2013). Empowering processes within prostate cancer online support groups. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 9, 51-66.

Campbell Eichhorn, K. (2008). Soliciting and providing social support over the Internet: An investigation of online eating disorder support groups. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14, 67-78.

Campbell-Grossman, C. K., Brage Hudson, D., Keating-Lefler, R., & Heusinkvelt, S. (2009). New mothers network: The provision of social support to single, low-income, African American mothers via e-mail messages. Journal of Family Nursing, 15, 220-236.

Cantrell, M. A., & Conte, T. (2008). Enhancing hope among early female survivors of childhood cancer via the Internet: A feasibility study. Cancer Nursing, 31, 370-379.

Capitulo, K. L. (2004). Perinatal grief online. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 29, 305-311.

Carlbring, P., Nilsson-Ihrfelt, E., Waara, J., Kollenstam, C., Buhrman, M., Kaldo, V., Marie Söderberg, M., Ekselius, L., & Andersson, G. (2005). Treatment of panic disorder: Live therapy vs. self-help via the Internet. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 1321–1333.

Carlini, B. H., Ronzani, T. M., Martins, L. F., Gomide, H. P., & de Souza, I. C. W. (2012). Demand for and availability of online support to stop smoking. Revista de Saude Publica, 46, 1074-1081.

Carron-Arthur, B., Cunningham, J. A., & Griffiths, K. M. (2014). Describing the distribution of engagement in an Internet support group by post frequency: A comparison of the 90-9-1 Principle and Zipf's Law. Internet Interventions, 1, 165-168.

Cavaglion, G. (2008). Voices of coping in an Italian self-help virtual community of cyberporn dependents. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 599-601.

Cavaglion, G. (2009). Cyber-porn dependence: Voices of distress in an Italian Internet self-help community. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7, 295-310.

Celio, A. A., Winzelberg, A. J., Dev, P., & Taylor, C. B. (2002). Improving compliance in on-line, structured self-help programs: Evaluation of an eating disorder prevention program. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 8, 14-20.

Chang, H.-J. (2009). Online supportive interactions: Using a network approach to examine communication patterns within a psychosis social support group in Taiwan. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60, 1504-1518.

Chang, T. (2005). Online counseling: Prioritizing psychoeducation, self-help, and mutual help for counseling psychology research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 33, 881-890.

Chang, T., Yeh, C. J., & Krumboltz, J. D. (2001). Process and outcome evaluation of an on-line support group for Asian American male college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 319-329.

Chen, A. T. (2012). Exploring online support spaces: Using cluster analysis to examine breast cancer, diabetes and fibromyalgia support groups. Patient Education and Counseling, 87, 250-257.

Chen, W., & Choi, A. S. K. (2011). Internet and social support among Chinese migrants in Singapore. New Media & Society, 13, 1067-1084.

Cho, J., Smith, K. C., Roter, D., Guallar, E., Noh, D.-Y., & Ford, D. E. (2011). Needs of women with breast cancer as communicated to physicians on the Internet. Supportive Care in Cancer, 19, 113-121.

Chung, J. E. (2014). Social networking in online support groups for health: How online social networking benefits patients. Journal of Health Communication, 19, 639-659.

Klaw, E., Huebsch, P. D., & Humphreys, K. (2000). Communication patterns in an on-line mutual help group for problem drinkers. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 535-546.

Chung, J. E. (2013). Social interaction in online support groups: Preference for online social interaction over offline social interaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1408-1414.

Clifford, T., & Minnes, P. (2013). Logging on: Evaluating an online support group for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 1662-1675.

Cobb, N. K., Graham, A. L., & Abrams, D. B. (2010). Social network structure of a large online community for smoking cessation. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1282-1289.

Collins, L. H. (2007). Practicing safer listserv use: Ethical use of an invaluable resource. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 690-698.

Collis, B., Winnips, K., & Moonen, J. (2000). Structured support versus learner choice via the World Wide Web (WWW): Where is the payoff? Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 11, 131-162.

Colòn, Y. (1996). The public forum, chatt(er)ing through the fingertips: doing group therapy online. Woman and Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory, 17, 205-215.

Constantino, R., Crane, P. A., Noll, B. S., Doswell, W. M., & Braxter, B. (2007). Exploring the feasibility of email-mediated interaction in survivors of abuse. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 14, 291-301.

Coulson, N. S. (2005). Receiving social support online: An analysis of a computer-mediated support group for individuals living with irritable Bowel syndrome. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8, 580-584.

Coulson, N. S., Buchanan, H., & Aubeeluck, A.( 2007). Social support in cyberspace: A content analysis of communication within a Huntington's disease online support group. Patient Education and Counseling, 68, 173-178.

Coulson, N. S., & Knibb, R. C. (2007). Coping with food allergy: Exploring the role of the online support group. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 145-148.

Coulson, N. S., & Shaw, R. L. (2013). Nurturing health-related online support groups: Exploring the experiences of patient moderators. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1695-1701.

Coursaris, C. K., & Liu, M. (2009). An analysis of social support exchanges in online HIV/AIDS self-help groups. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 911-918.

Cousineau, T. M., Green, T. C., Corsini, E., Seibring, A., Showstack, M. T., Applegarth, L., Davidson, M., & Perloe, M. (2008). Online psychoeducational support for infertile women: A randomized controlled trial. Human Reproduction, 23, 554-566.

Cousineau, T. M., Rancourt, D., & Craig Green, T. (2006). Web chatter before and after the women’s health initiative results: A content analysis of on-line menopause message boards. Journal of Health Communication, 11, 133-147.

Cummings, J. N., Sproull, L., & Kiesler, S. B. (2002). Beyond hearing: Where the real-world and online support meet. Group Dynamics, 6, 78-88.

Cunningham, J. A., Humphreys, K., Koski-Jännes, A., & Cordingley, J. (2005). Internet and paper self-help materials for problem drinking: Is there an additive effect? Addictive Behaviors, 30, 1517-1523.

Cunningham, J. A., van Mierlo, T., & Fournier, R. (2008). An online support group for problem drinkers: Patient Education and Counseling, 70, 193-198.

Cupit, I. N., Sofka, C. J., & Gilbert, K. R. (2012). Dying, death and grief in a technological world: Implications for now and speculations about the future. In C. J. Sofka, I. N. Cupit, and K. R. Gilbert (Eds.), Dying, death and grief in an online universe (pp. 235-246). New York, NY: Springer.

Curry, J., & Ray, S. (2010). Starving for support: How women with anorexia receive "Thinspiration" on the Internet. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 5, 358-373.

D’Amato, G., Cecchi, L., Liccardi, G., Pellegrino, F., D’Amato, M., & Sofia, M. (2012). Social networks: A new source of psychological stress or a way to enhance self-esteem? Negative and positive implications in bronchial asthma. Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology, 22, 402-405.

Darcy, A. M. & Dooley, B. (2007). A clinical profile of participants in an online support group. European Eating Disorders Review, 15, 185-195.

Davidson, J. (2008). Autistic culture online: Virtual communication and cultural expression on the spectrum. Social & Cultural Geography, 9, 791-806.

Davison, K. P., & Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Virtual narratives: Illness representation in online support groups. In K. J. Petrie & J. A. Weinman (Eds.), Perceptions of health and illness: Current research and applications (pp. 463-486). London, UK: Harwood.

Davison, K. P., Pennebaker, J. W., & Dickerson, S. S. (2000). Who talks? The social psychology of illness support groups. American Psychologist, 55, 205-217.

DeAndrea, D. C., & Anthony, J. C. (2013). Online peer support for mental health problems in the United States: 2004–2010. Psychological Medicine, 43, 2277-2288.

DeBar, L. L., Dickerson, J., Clarke, G., Stevens, V. J., Ritenbaugh, C., & Aickin, M. (2009). Using a website to build community and enhance outcomes in a group, multi-component intervention promoting healthy diet and exercise in adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 539-550.

Deitz, D. K., Cook, R. F., Billings, D. W., & Hendrickson, A. (2009). A web-based mental health program: Reaching parents at work. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 488-494.

De la Torre-Diez, I., Diaz-Pernas, F. J., & Anton-Rodriguez, M. (2012). A content analysis of chronic diseases social groups on Facebook and Twitter. Telemedicine and e-Health, 18, 404-408.

De Vries, B., & Moldaw, S. (2012). Virtual memorials and cyber funerals: Contemporary expressions of ageless experiences. In C. J. Sofka, I. N. Cupit, and K. R. Gilbert (Eds.), Dying, death and grief in an online universe (pp. 135-148). New York, NY: Springer.

Donovan, E. E., LeFebvre, L., Tardif, S., Brown, L. E., & Love, B. (2014). Patterns of social support communicated in response to expressions of uncertainty in an online community of young adults with cancer. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 42, 432-455.

Drentea, P., & Moren-Cross, J. L. (2005). Social capital and social support on the web: The case of an Internet mother site. Sociology of Health & Illness, 27, 920-943.

Drost, L. M., & Schippers, G. M. (2015). Online support for children of parents suffering from mental illness: A case study. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 20, 53-67.

Dunham, P. J., Hurshman, A., Litwin, E., Gusella, J., Ellsworth, C., & Dodd, P. W. D. (1998). Computer-mediated social support: Single young mothers as a model system. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 281-307.

Dupuis, E. C., & Ramsey, M. A. (2011). The relation of social support to depression in massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41, 2479-2491.

Dutta, M. J., & Feng, H. (2007). Health orientation and disease state as predictors of online health support group use. Health Communication, 22, 181-189.

Edelmann, N. (2013). Reviewing the definitions of ‘‘Lurkers’’ and some implications for online research. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 645-649.

Eden, S., & Heiman, T. (2011). Computer mediated communication: Social support for students with and without learning disabilities. Educational Technology & Society, 14, 89-97.

Ellis, L., Campbell, A. J., Sethi, S., & O’Dea, B. M. (2011). Comparative randomized trial of an online cognitive-behavioral therapy program and an online support group for depression and anxiety. Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation, 4, 461-467.

Elwyn, G., Kreuwel, I., Durand, M. A., Sivell, S., Joseph-Williams, N., Evans, R., & Edwards, A. (2011). How to develop web-based decision support interventions for patients: A process map. Patient Education and Counseling, 82, 260-265.

Epstein, Y. M., Rosenberg, H. S., Grant, T. V., & Hemenway, N. (2002). Use of the Internet as the only outlet for talking about infertility. Fertility and Sterility, 78, 507-514.

Erera, P., & Baum, N. ( 2009). Chat-room voices of divorced non-residential fathers. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 36, 63-83.

Eriksson, H., & Salzmann-Erikson, M. (2013). Supporting a caring fatherhood in cyberspace – An analysis of communication about caring within an online forum for fathers. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 27, 63-69.

Evans, M., Donelle, L., & Hume-Loveland, L. (2012). Social support and online postpartum depression discussion groups: A content analysis. Patient Education and Counseling, 87, 405-410.

Ewing, L. J., Long, K., Rotondi, A., Howe, C., Bill, L., & Marsland, A. L. (2009). A pilot study of a web-based resource for families of children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 523-529.

Eysenbach, G., Powell, J., Englesakis, M., Rizo, C., & Stern, A. (2004). Health related virtual communities and electronic support group: Systematic review of the effects of online peer to peer interactions. British Medical Journal, 328, 1166-1171.

Feigelman, W., Gorman, B. S., Chastain Beal, K., & Jordan, J. R. (2008). Internet support groups for suicide survivors: A new mode for gaining bereavement assistance. Omega, 57, 217-243.

Feil, E. G., Baggett, K. M., Davis, B., Sheeber, L., Landry, S., Carta, J. J., & Buzhardt, J. (2008). Expanding the reach of preventive interventions: Development of an Internet-based training for parents of infants. Child Maltreatment, 13, 334-346.

Feldman, M. D. (2000). Munchausen by Internet: Detecting factitious illness and crisis on the Internet. Southern Medical Journal, 93, 669-672.

Feng, B., & Hyun, M. J. (2012). The influence of friends’ instant messenger status on individuals’ coping and support-seeking. Communication Studies, 63, 536-553.

Finn, J. (1994). Computer-based self-help groups for sexual abuse survivors. Social Work with Group, 17, 21-47.

Finn, J. (1995). Computer-based self-help groups: A new resource to supplement support groups. Social Work with Groups, 18, 109-117.

Finn, J. (1999). An exploration of helping processes in an online self-help group focusing on issues of disability. Health and Social Work, 24, 220-231.

Finn, J., & Branch, M. (2000). Victimization online: The down side of seeking human services for woman on the Internet. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, 243-254.

Finn, J., & Steele, T. (2010). Online self-help/mutual aid groups in mental health practice. In L. D. Brown (Ed.), Mental health self-help: Consumer and family initiatives (pp. 87-105). New York: Springer.

Finfgeld, D. L. (2000). Therapeutic groups online: The good, the bad, and the unknown. Issues in Mental health Nursing, 21, 241-255.

Fleischmann, A. (2005). The hero's story and autism: Grounded theory study of websites for parents of children with autism. Autism, 9, 299-316.

Fogel, J., Albert, S. M., Schnabel, F., Ditkoff, B. A., & Neugut, A. I. (2002). Internet use and social support in women with breast cancer. Health Psychology, 21, 398-404.

Fogel, J., Albert, S. M., Schnabel, F., Ditkoff, A. B., & Neugut, A. I. (2003). Racial/ethnic differences and potential psychological benefits in use of the Internet by women with breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 12, 107-117.

Fogel, S. C. (1998). HIV- Related Internet news as professional and social support tools. Health Care on the Internet, 2 , 79-90.

Freeman, E., Barker, C., & Pistrang, N. (2008). Outcome of an online mutual support group for college students with psychological problems. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 591-593.

Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2015). The impact of daily stress on adolescents’ depressed mood: The role of social support seeking through Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 315-325.

Gabbert, T. I., Metze, B., Bührer, C., & Garten, L. (2013). Use of social networking sites by parents of very low birth weight infants: Experiences and the potential of a dedicate site. European Journal of Pediatrics, 172, 1671-1677.

Gabbiadini, A., Mari, S., & Volpato, C. (2013). Virtual users support forum: Do community members really want to help you? CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 285-292.

Galegher, J., Sproull, L., & Keisler, S. (1998). Legitimacy, authority, and community in electronic support groups. Written Communication, 15, 493-530.

Garvin, J. R. (1999). Self help pain relief on the world wide web: What is a health care provider to do? Journal of Pharmaceutical Care in Pain and Symptom Control, 7(3), 27-41.

Gary, J. M. (2004). Cultural and global linkages of emotional support through online support groups. In J. W. Bloom & G. R. Walz (Eds.), Cybercounseling & cyberlearning: An encore (pp. 219-246). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Gilat, I., & Shahar, G. (2009). Suicide prevention by online support groups: An action theory-based model of emotional first aid. Archives of Suicide Research, 13, 52-63.

Gilat, I., Tobin, T., & Shahar, G. (2011). Offering support to suicidal individuals in an online support group. Archives of Suicide Research, 15, 195-206.

Gilat, I., Tobin, Y., & Shahar, G. (2012). Responses to suicidal messages in an online support group: Comparison between trained volunteers and lay individuals. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47, 1929-1935.

Ginossar, T. (2008). Online participation: A content analysis of differences in utilization of two online cancer communities by men and women, patients and family members. Health Communication, 23, 1-12.

Giota, K. G., & Kleftaras, G. (2014). The discriminant value of personality, motivation and online relationship quality in predicting attraction to online social support on Facebook. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 30, 985-994.

Glasgow, R. E., Kurz, D., King, D., Dickman, J. M., Faber, A. J., Halterman, E., Wooley, T., Toobert, D. J., Strycker, L. A., Estabrooks, P. A., Osuna, D., & Ritzwoller, D. (2010). Outcomes of minimal and moderate support versions of an Internet-based diabetes self-management support program. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25, 1315-1322.

Glenn, A. D. (2015). Using online health communication to manage chronic sorrow: Mothers of children with rare diseases speak. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 30, 17-24.

Glueckauf, R. L., Ketterson, T. U., Loomis, J. S., & Dages, P. (2004). Online support and education for dementia caregivers: Overview utilization, and initial program evaluation. Telemedicine Journal and E-health, 10, 223-232.

Godin, S., Truschel, J., & Singh, V. (2005). Assessing quality assurance of self-help sites on the Internet. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 29, 67-84.

Gold, K. J., Boggs, M. E., Mugisha, E., & Palladino, C. L. (2012). Internet message boards for pregnancy loss: Who’s on-line and why? Women's Health Issues, 22, 67-72.

Gould, M. S., Munfakh, J. L. H., Lubell, K., Kleinman, M., & Parker, S. (2002). Seeking help from the Internet during adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1182-1189.

Green-Hamann, S., Eichhorn, K. C., & Sherblom, J. C. (2011). An exploration of why people participate in Second Life social support groups. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 16, 465-491.

Greenhow, C., & Burton, L. (2011). Help from my "friends": Social capital in the social network sites of low-income students. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 45, 223-245.

Greer, B, J. (2000). Psychological and support functions of an e-mail mailing list of persons with cerebral palsy. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, 221-235.

Gribble, K. D. (2001). Mother-to-mother support for women breastfeeding in unusual circumstances: A new method for an old model. Breastfeeding Review, 9(3), 13-19.

Gustafson, D. H., Hawkins, R., McTavish, F., Pingree, S., Chih Chen, W., Volrathongchai, K., Stengle, W., Stewart, J. A., & Serlin, R. C. (2008). Internet-based interactive support for cancer patients: Are integrated systems better? Journal of Communication, 58, 238-257.

Gustafson, D. H., Mctavish, F. M., Stengle, W., Ballard, D., Hawkins, R., Shaw, B. R., Jones, E., Jule` Sberg, K., Mcdowell, H., Chih Chen, W., Volrathongchai, K., & Landucci, G. (2005). Use and impact of eHealth system by low-income women with breast cancer. Journal of Health Communication, 10, 195-218.

Gustafson, D. H., Mctavish, F. M., Stengle, W., Ballard, D., Jones, E., Julesberg, K., Mcdowell, H., Landucci, G., & Hawkins, R. (2005). Reducing the digital divide for low-income women with breast cancer: A feasibility study of a population-based intervention. Journal of Health Communication, 10, 173-193.

Haas, S. M., Irr, M. E., Jennings, N. A., & Wagner, L. M. (2010). Communicating thin: A grounded model of online negative enabling support groups in the pro-anorexia movement. New Media & Society, 13, 40-57.

Haemmerli, K., Znoj, H., & Berger, T. (2010). Internet-based support for infertile patients: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 135-146.

Haker, H., Lauber, C., & Rossler, W. (2005). Internet forums: A self-help approach for individuals with schizophrenia? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112, 474-477.

Hall, M. J., & Tidwell, W. C. (2003). Internet recovery for substance abuse and alcoholism: An exploratory study of service users. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 24, 161-167.

Han, H. R., & Belcher, A. E. (2001). Computer-mediated support group use among parents of children with cancer – an exploratory study. Computer in Nursing, 19, 27-33.

Han, J. Y., Kim, J.-H., Yoon, H. J., Shim, M., McTavish, F. M., & Gustafson, D. H. (2012). Social and psychological determinants of levels of engagement with an online breast cancer support group: Posters, lurkers, and nonusers. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 17, 356-371.

Harvey-Berino, J., Pintauro, S. J., & Gold, E. C. (2002). The feasibility of using Internet support for the maintenance of weight loss. Behavior Modification, 26, 103-116.

Hausner, H., Hajak, G., Spießl, H. (2008). Gender differences in help-seeking behavior on two Internet forums for individuals with self-reported depression. Gender Medicine, 5, 181-185.

Hazzard, A., Celano, M., Collins, M., & Markov, Y. (2002). Effects of STARBRIGHT world on knowledge, social support, and coping in hospitalized children with sickle cell disease and asthma. Children’s Health Care, 31, 69-86.

Henry, N. I. (1997). Getting acquainted with support and self-help groups on the Internet. Heath Care on the Internet, 1(2), 27-32.

Hensley, L. D. (2012). Bereavement in online communities: Sources of and support for disenfranchised grief. In C. J. Sofka, I. N. Cupit, and K. R. Gilbert (Eds.), Dying, death and grief in an online universe (pp. 119-134). New York, NY: Springer.

Herman, J., Mock, K., Blackwell, D., & Hulsey, Tara. (2005). Use of a pregnancy support Web site by low-income African American women. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 34, 713-720.

Hieftje, K. (2012). The role of social networking sites in memorialization of college students. In C. J. Sofka, I. N. Cupit, and K. R. Gilbert (Eds.), Dying, death and grief in an online universe (pp. 31-46). New York, NY: Springer.

High, A. C., & Solomon, D. H. (2011). Locating computer-mediated social support within online communication environments. In K. B. Wright & L. M. Webb (Eds.), Computer-mediated communication in personal realtionships (pp. 119-135). New York: Peter Lang.

Hill, W. G., & Weinert, C. (2004). An evaluation of an online intervention to provide social support and health education. Computers, Informatcs, Nursing, 22, 282-288.

Hlebec, V., Manfreda, K. L., & Vehovar, V. (2006). The social support networks of Internet users. New Media & Society, 8, 9-32.

Harding, R., & Peel, E. (2007). Surveying sexualities: Internet research with non-heterosexuals. Feminism & Psychology, 17, 277-285.

Högberg, K., Sandman, L., Nyström, M., Stockelberg, D., & Broström, A. (2013). Prerequisites required for the provision and use of web-based communication for psychosocial support in haematologic care. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 17, 596-602.

Holden, G., Bearison, D. J., Rode, D. C., Rosenberg, G., & Fishman, M. (1999). Evaluating the effects of a virtual environment (STARBRIGHT World) with hospitalized children. Research on Social Work Practice, 9, 365-382.

Holden, G., Bearison, D. J., Rode, D. C., Kapiloff, M. F., & Rosenberg, G. (2000). The effects of a computer network on pediatric pain and anxiety. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 17, 27-47.

Holden, G., Bearison, D. J., Rode, D. C., Kapiloff, M. F., Rosenberg, G., & Rosenzweig, J. (2002). The impact of a computer network on pediatric pain and anxiety: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Social Work in Health Care, 36(2), 21-33.

Hopf, R. B. B., Le Grange, D., Moessner, M., & Bauer, S. (2013). Internet-based chat support groups for parents in family-based treatment for adolescent eating disorders: A pilot study. European Eating Disorders Review, 21, 215-223.

Horgan, A., McCarthy, G., & Sweeney, J. (2013). An evaluation of an online peer support forum for university students with depressive symptoms. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 27, 84-89.

Horvath, K. J., Oakes, J. M., Rosser, B. R. S., Danilenko, G., Vezina, H., Amico, K. R., Williams, M. L., & Simoni, J. (2013). Feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of an online peer-to-peer social support art adherence intervention. AIDS and Behavior, 17, 2031-2044.

Hou, C.-N., & Lu, H.-Y. (2013). Online networks as a venue for social support: A qualitative study of married bisexual men in Taiwan. Journal of Homosexuality, 60, 1280-1296.

Houston, T. K., Cooper, L. A., & Ford, D. E. (2002). Internet support groups for depression: A 1-year prospective cohort study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 2062-2068.

Houston, T. K., & Ford, D. E. (2008). A tailored Internet-delivered intervention for smoking cessation designed to encourage social support and treatment seeking: Usability testing and user tracing. Informatics for Health and Social Care, 33, 5-19.

Høybye, M. T., Dalton, S. O., Christensen, J., Ross, L., Kuhn, K. G., & Johansen, C. (2010). Social and psychological determinants of participation in Internet-based cancer support groups. Supportive Care in Cancer, 18, 553-560.

Hoybye, M. T., Johansen, C., & Tjornhoj-Thomsen, T. (2005). Online interaction: Effects of storytelling in an Internet breast cancer support group. Psycho-Oncology, 14, 211-220.

Hsiung, R. C. (2000). The best of both worlds: An online self-help group hosted by a mental health professional. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, 935-950.

Hsiung, R. C. (2007). A suicide in an online mental health support group: Reactions of the group members, administrative responses, and recommendations. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 495-500.

Hu, X., Bell, R. A., Kravitz, R. L., & Orrange, S. (2012). The prepared patient: Information seeking of online support group members before their medical appointments. Journal of Health Communication, 17, 960-978.

Hwang, K. O., Ottenbacher, A. J., Lucke, J. F., Etchegaray, J. M., Graham, A. L., Thomas, E. J., & Bernstam, E. V. (2011). Measuring social support for weight loss in an Internet weight loss community. Journal of Health Communication, 16, 198-211.

Hwang, K. O., Etchegaray, J. M., Sciamanna, C. N., Bernstam, E. V., & Thomas, E. J. (2014). Structural social support predicts functional social support in an online weight loss programme. Health Expectations, 17, 345-352.

Hudson, D. B., Campbell-Grossman, C., Keating-Lefler, R., Carraher, S., Gehle, J., & Heusinkvelt, S. (2009). Online support for single, low-income, african american mothers. American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 34, 350-355.

Hudson, D. B., Campbell-Grossman, C., Keating-Lefler, R., & Cline, P. (2008). New mothers network: The development of an Internet-based social support intervention for African American mothers. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 31, 23-35.

Hughes, M. G., Griffith, J. A., Zeni, T. A., Arsenault, M. L., Cooper, O. D., Johnson, G., Hardy, J. H., Connelly, S., & Mumford, M. D. (2014). Discrediting in a message board forum: The effects of social support and attacks on expertise and trustworthiness. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19, 325-341.

Humphreys, K., Winzelberg, A., & Klaw, E. (2000). Psychologists’ ethical responsibilities in Internet-based groups: Issues, strategies and a call for dialogue. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 493-496.

Hurley, A. L., Sullivan, P., & McCarthy, J. (2007). The construction of self in online support groups for victims of domestic violence. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 859-874.

Huws, J. C., Jones, R. S. P., & Ingledew, D. K. (2001). Parents of children with Autism using an email group: A grounded theory study. Journal of Health Psychology, 6, 569-584.

Hwang, K. O., Farheen, K., Johnson, C. W., Thomas, E. J., Barnes, A. S., & Bernstam, E. V. (2007). Quality of weight loss advice on Internet forums. The American Journal of Medicine, 120, 604-609.

Hwang, K. O., Ottenbacher, A. J., Green, A. P., Cannon-Diehl, M. R., Richardson, O., Bernstam, E. V., & Thomas, E. J. (2010). Social support in an Internet weight loss community. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 79, 5-13.

Im, E. O., Chee, W., Lim, H. J., Liu, Y., Guevara, E.,& Kim, K. S. (2007). Patients' attitudes toward Internet cancer support groups. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34, 705-712.

Im, E. O., Chee, W., Tsai, H. M., Lin, L. C., & Cheng, C. Y. (2005). Internet cancer support groups: A feminist analysis. Cancer Nursing, 28, 1-7.

Im, E.-O., Chee, W., Tsai, H.-M., Lim, H.-J., Guevara, E., & Liu, Y. (2010). Evaluation criteria for Internet cancer support groups. Computers Informatics Nursing, 28, 183-188.

Im, E.-O., Lee, B., & Chee, W. (2010). Shielded from the real world: Perspectives on Internet cancer support groups by Asian Americans. Cancer Nursing, 33, 10-20.

Im, E., Lee, B., & Chee, W. (2011). The questions on the use of Internet cancer support groups. Computers Informatics Nursing, 29, 344-351.

Indian, M., & Grieve, R. (2014). When Facebook is easier than face-to-face: Social support derived from Facebook in socially anxious individuals. Personality and Individual Differences, 59, 102-106.

Jatoi, A., Jacobs, J. A., Zimmermann, E., Johnson, M. E., Nguyen, P.L., & Hartmann, L. C. (2006). Helping people cope with bereavement: An opportunity for health care providers to link Web-based resources across Minnesota. Minnesota Medicine, 89, 42-44.

Johnsen, J. A. K., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Gammon, D. (2002). Online group interaction and mental health: An analysis of three online discussion forums. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43, 445-449.

Johnsen, J.-A. K., Vambheim, S. M., Wynn, R., & Wangberg, S. C. (2014). Language of motivation and emotion in an Internet support group for smoking cessation: Explorative use of automated content analysis to measure regulatory focus. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 7, 19-29.

Johnson, G. M., Zastawny, S., & Kulpa, A. (2010). E-message boards for those who self-injure: Implications for e-health. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8, 566-569.

Johnson, S. A. (2014). ‘Intimate mothering publics’: Comparing face-to-face support groups and Internet use for women seeking information and advice in the transition to first-time motherhood. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 17, 237-251.

Jordan, C. J. (2010). Evolution of autism support and understanding via the world wide web. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 48, 220-227.

Jung, Y., Song, H., & Vorderer, P. (2012). Why do people post and read personal messages in public? The motivation of using personal blogs and its effects on users’ loneliness, belonging, and well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1626-1633.

Kang, S. (2007). Disembodiment in online social interaction: Impact of online chat on social support and psychosocial well-being. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 475-477.

Kaplan, K., Salzer, M. S., Solomon, P., Brusilovskiy, E., & Cousounis, P. (2011). Internet peer support for individuals with psychiatric disabilities: A randomized controlled trial. Social Science & Medicine, 72, 54-62.

Keating, D. M. (2013). Spirituality and support: A descriptive analysis of online social support for depression. Journal of Religion and Health, 52, 1014-1028.

Kernsmith, P. D., & Kernsmith, R. M. (2008). A safe place for predators: Online treatment of recovering sex offenders. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26, 223-238.

Kim, S. C., Shah, D. V., Namkoong, K., McTavish, F. M., & Gustafson, D. H. (2013). Predictors of online health information seeking among women with breast cancer: The role of social support perception and emotional well-being. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 18, 212-232.

King, S. A., & Moreggi, D. (1998). Internet therapy and self-help groups- The pros and cons . In J. Gackenbach, (Ed.), Psychology and the Internet, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal implications (pp. 77-109). San Diego: Academic Press.

King, S. A., & Moreggi, D. (2007). Internet self help and support groups: The pros and cons of text-based mutual aid. In J. Gackenbach (Ed.), Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, interpersonal and transpersonal implications (2nd ed.) (pp. 221-244). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Kinnane, N. A., Waters, T., & Aranda, S. (2011). Evaluation of a pilot ‘peer support’ training programme for volunteers in a hospital-based cancer information and support centre. Support Care Cancer, 19, 81-90.

Klatt, C., Berg, C. J., Thomas, J. L., Ehlinger, E., Ahluwalia, J. S., & An, L. C. (2008). The role of peer e-mail support as part of a college smoking-cessation website. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35, 471-478.

Klemm, P. (2012). Effects of online support group format (moderated vs peer-led) on depressive symptoms and extent of participation in women with breast cancer. Computers Informatics Nursing, 30, 9-18.

Klemm, P., Bunnell, D., Cullen, M., Soneji, R., Gibbons, P., & Holecek, A. (2003). Online cancer support groups: A review of the research literature. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 21, 136-142.

Ko, H.-C., Wang, L.-L., & Xu, Y.-T. (2013). Understanding the different types of social support offered by audience to a-list diary-like and informative bloggers. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 194-199.

Kodatt, S. A., Shenk, J. E., Williams, M. L., & Horvath, K. J. (2014). Leadership qualities emerging in an online social support group intervention. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 29, 467-475.

Kool, M. B., & Geenen, R. (2012). Loneliness in patients with rheumatic diseases: The significance of invalidation and lack of social support. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 146, 229-241.

Kramish, C. M., Meier, A., Carr, C., Enga, Z., James, A. S., Reedy, J., & Zheng, B. (2001). Health behavior changes after colon cancer: A comparison of findings from face-to-face and on-linen focus groups. Family & Community Health, 24, 88-103.

Krukowski, R. A., Harvey-Berino, J., Ashikaga, T., Thomas, C. S., & Micco, N. (2008). Internet-based weight control: The relationship between web features and wight loss. Telemedicine and e-Health, 14, 775-782.

Krysinska, K., & Msuicidology, A. K. (2010). On-line support and resources for people bereaved through suicide: What is available? Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 40, 640-650.

Kummervold, P. E., Gammon, D., Bergvik, S., Johnsen, J. A. K., Hasvold, T., & Rosenvinge, J. H. (2002). Social support in wired world: Use of online mental health forums in Norway. Nordik Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 59-65.

Lagan, B. M., Sinclair, M., & Kernohan, W. G. (2010). Internet use in pregnancy informs women’s decision making: A web-based survey. Birth, 37, 106-115.

Lamberg, L. (2003). Online empathy for mood disorders: Patients turn to internet support groups. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, p.3073-p.3077.

Lancee, J., van den Bout, J., van Straten, A., & Spoormaker, V. I. (2012). Internet-delivered or mailed self-help treatment for insomnia? A randomized waiting-list controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 22-29.

Lavin, M., Marvin, K., McLarney, A., Nola, V., & Scott, L. (1999). Sensation seeking and collegiate vulnerability to Internet dependence. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2, 425-430.

Lawlor, A., & Kirakowski, J. (2014). When the lie is the truth: Grounded theory analysis of an online support group for factitious disorder. Psychiatry Research, 218, 209-218.

Leimeister, J. M., Schweizer, K., Leimeister, S., & Krcmar, H. (2008). Do virtual communities matter for the social support of patients? Antecedents and effects of virtual relationships in online communities. Information Technology & People, 21, 350-374.

Lekka, F., Efstathiou, G., & Kalantzi-Azizi, A. (2015). The effect of counselling-based training on online peer support. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 43, 156–170.

Letourneau, N., Stewart, M., Masuda, J. R., Anderson, S., Cicutto, L., McGhan, S., & Watt, S. (2012). Impact of online support for youth with asthma and allergies: Pilot study. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 27, 65-73.

Lewandowski, J., Rosenberg, B. D., Parks, M. J., & Siegel, J. T. (2011). The effect of informal social support: Face-to-face versus computer-mediated communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1806-1814.

Ley, B. L. (2007). Vive Les Roses!: The architecture of commitment in an online pregnancy and mothering group. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1388-1408.

Lieberman, M. A. (2007). Psychological characteristics of people with parkinson’s disease who prematurely drop out of professionally led Internet chat support groups. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 741-748.

Lieberman, M. A. (2008). Effects of disease and leader type on moderators in online support groups. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 2446-2455.

Lieberman, M. A., Golant, M., Giese-Davis, J., Winzlenberg, A., Benjamin, H., Humphreys, K., Kronenwetter, C., Russo, S., & Spiegel, D. (2003). Electronic support groups for breast carcinoma: A clinical trial of effectiveness. Cancer, 97, 920-925.

Lieberman, M. A., & Goldstein, B. A. (2005). Self-help on-line: An outcome evaluation of breast cancer bulletin boards. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 855–862.

Lieberman, M. A., & Goldstein, B. A. (2006). Not all negative emotions are equal: The role of emotional expression in online support groups for women with breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 15, 160-168.

Lieberman, M. A., & Russo, S. (2001-2002). Self help groups and the Internet: Breast cancer newsgroups. International Journal of Self Help and Self Care, 1, 323-344.

Lieberman, M. A., & Winzelberg, A. (2009). The relationship between religious expression and outcomes in online support groups: A partial replication. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 690-694.

Lieberman, M. A., Winzelberg, A., Golant, M., & DiMinno, M. (2005). The impact of group composition on Internet support groups: Homogeneous versus heterogeneous Parkinson’s groups. Group Dynamics, 9, 239-250.

Lieberman, M. A., Winzelberg, A., Golant, M., Wakahiro, M., DiMinno, M., Aminoff, M., Christine, C. (2005). Online support groups for Parkinson's patients: A pilot study of effectiveness. Social Work Health Care, 42, 23-38.

Liess, A., Simon, W., Yutsis, M., Owen, J. E., Altree Piemme, K., Golant, M., & Giese-Davis, J. (2008). Detecting emotional expression in face-to-face and online breast cancer support groups. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 517-523.

Lin, C.-P., & Anol, B. (2008). Learning online social support: An investigation of network information technology based on UTAUT. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 268-272.

Lindsay, S., Smith, S., Bellaby, P., & Baker, R. (2009). The health impact of an online heart disease support group: A comparison of moderated versus unmoderated support. Health Education Research, 24, 646-654.

Ling, I.-L., Chuang, S.-C., & Hsiao, C.-H. (2012). The effects of self-diagnostic information on risk perception of Internet addiction disorder: Self-positivity bias and online social support. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 2111-2136.

Longman, H., O’Connor, E., & Obst, P. (2009). The effect of social support derived from World of Warcraft on negative psychological symptoms. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12, 563-566.

Lorig, K., Thompson-Gallagher, D., Traylor, L., Ritter, P. L., Laurent, D. D., Plant, K., Thompson, L. W., & Hahn, T. J. (2012). Building better caregivers: A pilot online support workshop for family caregivers of cognitively impaired adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 31, 423-437.

Love, B., Crook, B., Thompson, C. M., Zaitchik, S., Knapp, J., LeFebvre, L., Jones, B., Donovan-Kicken, E., Eargle, E., & Rechis, R. (2012). Exploring psychosocial support online: A content analysis of messages in an adolescent and young adult cancer community. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 555-559.

Lawlor, A., & Kirakowski, J. (2014). Online support groups for mental health: A space for challenging self-stigma or a means of social avoidance? Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 152-161.

Lynn, C., & Rath, A. (2012). GriefNet: Creating and maintaining an Internet bereavement community. In C. J. Sofka, I. N. Cupit, and K. R. Gilbert (Eds.), Dying, death and grief in an online universe (pp. 87-102). New York, NY: Springer.

Madara, E. J. (1997). The mutual-aid self-help online revolution. Social Policy, 27(3), 20-26.

Mahan Gary, J., & Remolino, L. (2000). Coping with loss and grief through on-line support groups. In J. W. Bloom, & R. G.Walz (Eds.), Cybercounseling and cyberlearning: Strategies and resources for the new millennium (pp. 95-113). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Malik, S. H., & Coulson, N. (2008). The male experience of infertility: A thematic analysis of an online infertility support group bulletin board. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 26, 18-30.

Malik, S. H., & Coulson, N. S. (2008). Computer-mediated infertility support groups: An exploratory study of online experiences. Patient Education and Counseling, 73, 105-113.

Malik, S., & Coulson, N. S. (2010). ‘They all supported me but I felt like I suddenly didn't belong anymore’: An exploration of perceived disadvantages to online support seeking. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 31, 140-149.

Malik, S. H., & Coulson, N. S. (2010). Coping with infertility online: An examination of self-help mechanisms in an online infertility support group. Patient Education and Counseling, 81, 315-318.

Malik, S. H., & Coulson, N. S. (2010). A comparison of lurkers and posters within infertility online support groups. Computers Informatics Nursing, 29, 564-573.

Malik, S., & Coulson, N. S. (2011). The therapeutic potential of the Internet: exploring self-help processes in an Internet forum for young people with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology Nursing, 34, 470-479.

Maloney, P. (2013). Online networks and emotional energy: How pro-anorexic websites use interaction ritual chains to (re)form identity. Information, Communication & Society, 16, 105-124.

Martin, S., Wolters, P. L., Baldwin, A., Roderick, M. C., Toledo-Tamula, M. A., Gillespie, A., & Widemann, B. (2014). Attitudes about Internet support groups among adolescents and young adults with Neurofibromatosis type 1 and their parents. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 23, 796–804.

Martin, S. D., & Youngren, K. B. (2002). Help on the net: Internet support groups for people dealing with cancer. Home Healthcare Nurse, 20, 771-777.

Marziali, E., Donahue, P., & Crossin, G.(2005). Caring for others: Internet health care support intervention for family caregivers of persons with alzheimer's, stroke, or parkinson's disease. Families in Society, 86, 375-383.

Matzat, U., & Rooks, G. (2014). Styles of moderation in online health and support communities: An experimental comparison of their acceptance and effectiveness. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 65-75.

Mayer, M., & Till, J. E. (1996). The Internet: A modern Pandora’s Box? Quality of Life Research, 5, 568-571.

Mazzoni, D., & Cicognani, E. (2014). Sharing experiences and social support requests in an Internet forum for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Health Psychology, 19, 689-696.

Mccormack, A. (2010). Individuals with eating disorders and the use of online support groups as a form of social support. Computers Informatics Nursing, 28, 12-19.

McDanial, B. T., Coyne, S. M., & Holmes, E. K. (2012). New mothers and media use: Associations between blogging, social networking, and maternal well-being. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16, 1509-1517.

McKay, H. G., Glasgow, R. E., Feil, E. G., Boles, S. M., & Barrera, M., Jr. (2002). Internet-based diabetes self-management and support: Initial outcomes from the Diabetes Network project. Rehabilitation Psychology, 47, 31-48.

McLaughlin, M., Nam, Y., Gould, J., Pade, C., Meeske, K. A., Ruccione, K. S., & Fulk, J. (2012). A videosharing social networking intervention for young adult cancer survivors. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 631-641.

McVittie, C., Goodall, K., & McFarlane, S. (2009). ‘Your cuts are just as important as anyone else’s’: Individuals’ online discussions of self-injury. Health Psychology Update, 18, 3-7.

Meier, A. (1997). Inventing new models of social support groups: A feasibility study of an online stress management support group for social workers. Social Work with Groups, 20(4), 35-53.

Meier, A. (2000). Offering social support via the Internet: A case study of an online support group for social workers. In J. Finn & G. Holden (Eds.), Human services online: A new arena for service delivery (pp. 237-266). New York: Haworth Press. (also: Journal of Technology in Human Services, 17, 237-266.)

Meier, A. (2002). An online stress management support group for social workers. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 20, 107-132.

Meier, A. (2004). Technology-mediated groups. In C. D. Garvin, L. M. Gutie’rrez, & M. J. Galinsky (Eds.), Handbook of social work with groups (pp. 479-503). New York: Guilford.

Meier, A. (2005). In-person counseling and Internet self-help groups: Synthesizing new forms of social work practice. In, G. L. Greif, & P. H. Ephross (Eds.), Group work with populations at risk (pp. 159-180). New York: Oxford University Press.

Meier, A. (2011). Integrating in-person counseling and Internet support communities: "E-volving" practice models for social group work with at-risk populations. In G. L. Greif & P. H. Ephross (Eds.), Group work with populations at risk (3rd ed., pp. 170-209). New York: Oxford University Press.

Melling, B., & Houguet-Pincham, T. (2011). Online peer support for individuals with depression: A summary of current research and future considerations. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 34, 252-254.

Mendelson, C. (2003). Gentle hugs: Internet listservs as sources of support for women with lupus. Advances in Nursing Science, 26, 299-306.

Meneses, J., Fàbregues, S., Rodríguez-Gómez, D., & Ion, G. (2012). Internet in teachers’ professional practice outside the classroom: Examining supportive and management uses in primary and secondary schools. Computers & Education, 59, 915-924.

Mermelstein, R., & Turner, L. (2006). Web-based support as an adjunct to group-based smoking cessation for adolescents. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 8, 69-76.

Metcalf, M. P., Tanner, T. B., & Coulehan, M. B. (2001). Empowered decision making: Using the Internet for health care information—and beyond. Caring, 20, 42-44.

Michalec, B. (2005). Exploring the multidimensional benefits of breast cancer support groups. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 23, 159-179.

Mitchell, A. M., Wesner, S., Garand, L., Dysart Gale, D., Havill, A., & Brownson, L. (2007). A Support group intervention for children bereaved by parental suicide. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 20, 3-13.

Miyata, K. (2002). Social support for Japanese mothers online and offline. In B. Wellman & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Internet in Everyday Life (pp. 520-548). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Meyer, D. (2007). Online self-help: Developing a student-focused website for depression. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research, 7, 151-156.

Mikal, J. P., Rice, R. E., Abeyta, A., & DeVilbiss, J. (2013). Transition, stress and computer-mediated social support. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 40-53.

Miller, M. W. (1997). Cancer support groups migrate to Internet relay chat. Heath Care on the Internet, 1, 83-89.

Miller , S. M. (2008). The effect of frequency and type of Internet use on perceived social support and sense of well-being in individuals with spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 51, 148-158.

Mirivel, J. C., & Thombre, A. (2010). Surviving online: An analysis of how burn survivors recover from life crises. Southern Communication Journal, 75, 232-254.

Mo, P. K. H., & Coulson, N. S. (2008). Exploring the communication of social support within virtual communities: A content analysis of messages posted to an online HIV/AIDS support group. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 371-374.

Mo, P. K. H., & Coulson, N. S. (2010). Living with HIV/AIDS and use of online support groups. Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 339-350.

Mo, P. K. H., & Coulson, N. S. (2010). Empowering processes in online support groups among people living with HIV/AIDS: A comparative analysis of ‘lurkers’ and ‘posters’. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1183-1193.

Mo, P. K. H., & Coulson, N. S. (2012). Developing a model for online support group use, empowering processes and psychosocial outcomes for individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Psychology & Health, 27, 445-459.

Mo, P. K. H., Malik, S. H., & Coulson, N. S. (2009). Gender differences in computer-mediated communication: A systematic literature review of online health-related support groups. Patient Education and Counseling, 75, 16-24.

Moursund, J. (1997). Sanctuary: Social support on the Internet. In J. E. Behar, (Ed.), Mapping cyberspace: social research on the electronic frontier (pp. 53-78). Oakdale, NY: Dowling College Press.

Muncer, S., Burrows, R., Pleace, N., Loader, B., & Nettleton, S. (2000). Births, deaths, sex and marriage… but very few presents? A case study of social support in Cyberspace. Critical Public Health, 10, 1-18.

Nelson, C. B., Abraham, K. M., Walters, H., Pfeiffer, P. N., & Valenstein, M. (2014). Integration of peer support and computer-based CBT for veterans with depression. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 57-64.

Nevonen, L., Mark, M., Levin, B., Lindström, M., & Paulson-Karlsson, G. (2006). Evaluation of a new Internet-based self-help guide for patients with bulimic symptoms in Sweden. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 463-468.

Nicholas, D. B., Gutwin, C., & Paterson, B. (2013). Examining preferences for website support to parents of adolescents with diabetes. Social Work in Health Care, 52, 862-879.

Nieuwboer, C. C., Fukkink, R. G., & Hermanns, J. M. A. (2013). Peer and professional parenting support on the Internet: A systematic review. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 518-528.

Nilsson, C., Ohman, M., & Söderberg, S. (2006). Information and communication technology in supporting people with serious chronic illness living at home – an intervention study. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 12, 198-202.

Nimrod, G. (2012). From knowledge to hope: Online depression communities. International Journal on Disability and Human Development, 11, 23–30.

Nimrod, G. (2013). Online depression communities: Members’ Interests and perceived benefits. Health Communication, 28, 425-434.

Nimrod, G. (2013). Challenging the Internet paradox: Online depression communities and well-being. International Journal of Internet Science, 8, 30-48.

Norcross, J. C. (2006). Integrating self-help into psychotherapy: 16 practical suggestions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37, 683-693.

Obadina, E. T., Dubenske, L. L., McDowell, H. E., Atwood, A. K., Mayer, D. K., Woods, R. W., Gustafson, D. H & Burnside, E. S. (2014). Online support: Impact on anxiety in women who experience an abnormal screening mammogram. Breast, 23, 743-748.

Oh, H. J., Lauckner, C., Boehmer, J., Fewins-Bliss, R., & Li, K. (2013). Facebooking for health: An examination into the solicitation and effects of health-related social support on social networking sites. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 2072-2080.

Oh, H. J., & Lee, B. (2012).The effect of computer-mediated social support in online communities on patient empowerment and doctor–patient communication. Health Communication, 27, 30-41.

Oinas-Kukkonen, H. (2013). A foundation for the study of behavior change support systems. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 17, 1223-1235.

Oliffe, J. L., Han, C. S., Lohan, M., & Bottorff, J. L. (2015). Repackaging prostate cancer support group research findings an e-KT case study. American Journal of Men's Health, 9, 53-63.

Owen, J. E., Bantum, E. O., & Golant, M. (2009). Benefits and challenges experienced by professional facilitators of online support groups for cancer survivors. Psycho-Oncology, 18, 144-155.

Owen, J. E., Boxley, L., Goldstein, M. S., Lee, J. H., Breen, N., & Rowland, J. H. (2010). Use of health-related online support groups: Population data from the California health interview survey complementary and alternative medicine study. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 15, 427-446.

Owen, J. E., Klapow, J. C., Roth, D. L., Nabell, L., & Tucker, D. C. (2004). Improving the effectiveness of adjuvant psychological treatment for women with breast cancer: The feasibility of providing online support. Psycho-Oncology, 13, 281-292.

Owen, J. E., Klapow, J. C., Roth, D. L., Shuster, J. L., & Bellis, J. (2005). Randomized pilot of a self-guided Internet coping group for women with early-stage breast cancer. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 54-64.

Owen, J. E., Yarbrough, E. J., Vaga, A., & Tucker, D. C. (2003). Investigation of the effects of gender and preparation on quality of communication in Internet support groups. Computers in Human Behavior, 19, 259-275.

Owen, J. E., Klapow, J. C., Roth, D. L., Tucker, D. C., Meredith, R., & Tucker, D. C. (2004). Use of the Internet for information and support: Disclosure among persons with breast and prostate cancer. Journal of Behavior Medicine, 27, 491-505.

Owens, C., Sharkey, S., Smithson, J., Hewis, E., Emmens, T., Ford, T., & Jones, R. (2012). Building an online community to promote communication and collaborative learning between health professionals and young people who self-harm: An exploratory study. Health Expectations, 18, 81-94.

Pacifici, C., Delaney, R., White, L., Nelson, C., & Cummings, K. (2006). Web-based training for foster, adoptive, and kinship parents. Children and Youth Services Review, 28, 1329-1343.

Pacifici, C., White, L., Cummings, K., & Nelson, C. (2005). A Web-based community for at-risk teens. Child Welfare, 84, 25-46.

Page, B. P., Delmonico, D. L., Walsh, J., L’Amoreaux, N. A., Danninhirsh, C., Thompson, R. S., Ingram, A. I., & Evans, A. D. (2000). Setting up on-line support groups using the palace software. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25, 133-145.

Patterson, P., McDonald, F. E., & Orchard, P. (2014). A new Australian online and phone mental health support service for young people living with cancer. Australasian Psychiatry, 22, 165-169.

Pector, E. A., & Hsiung, R. C. (2010). Clinical work with support groups online: Practical aspects. In R. Kraus, G. Stricker, and C. Speyer (Eds.), Online counseling: A handbook for mental health professionals (2nd ed., pp. 204-224). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.

Pereira, J., Bruera, E., & Macmillan, K. S. (2000). Palliative cancer patients and their families on the Internet : Motivation and impact. Journal of Palliative Care, 16 (4), 13-19.

Perkins, E. A., & LaMartin, K. M. (2012). The Internet as social support for older carers of adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 9, 53-62.

Perron, B. (2002). Online support for caregivers of people with a mental illness. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 26, 70-77.

Paterson, B. L., Brewer, J., & Stamler, L. L. (2013). Engagement of parents in on-line social support interventions. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 28, 114-124.

Peterson, J. L. (2010). “You have to be positive.” Social support processes of an online support group for men. Communication Studies, 60, 526-541.

Petrovcic, A., & Petric, G. (2014). Differences in intrapersonal and interactional empowerment between lurkers and posters in health-related online support communities. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 39-48.

Pfeil, U., & Zaphiris, P. (2010). Applying qualitative content analysis to study online support communities. Universal Access in the Information Society, 9, 1-16.

Pfeil, U., Zaphiris, P., & Wilson, S. (2009). Older adults’ perceptions and experiences of online social support. Interacting with Computers, 21, 159-172.

Pfeil, U., Zaphiris, P., & Wilson, P. (2010). The role of message-sequences in the sustainability of an online support community for older people. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication,15, 336-363.

Pierce, L. L., Steiner, V., & Govoni, A. L. (2002). In-home online support for caregivers of survivors of stroke: A feasibility study. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 20, 157-164.

Piette, J. D. (2002). Enhancing support via interactive technologies. Current Diabetes Reports, 2, 160-165.

Pike, K. J., Rabius, V., McAlister, A., & Geiger, A. (2007). American Cancer society's QuitLink: Randomized trial of Internet assistance. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9, 415-420.

Polomano, R. C., Droog, N., Purinton, M. C. P., & Cohen, A. S. (2007). Social support web-based resources for patients with chronic pain. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 21, 49-55.

Porter, N., & Ispa, J. M. (2013). Mothers’ online message board questions about parenting infants and toddlers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69, 559-568.

Rains, S. A., & Young, V. (2009). A meta-analysis of research on formal computer-mediated support groups: Examining group characteristics and health outcomes. Human Communication Research, 35, 309-336.

Ransom, D. C., La Guardia, J. G., Woody, E. Z., & Boyd, J. L (2010). Interpersonal interactions on online forums addressing eating concerns. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43, 161-170.

Ravert, R. D., & Crowell, T. L. (2008). ‘I have cystic fibrosis’: An analysis of web-based disclosures of a chronic illness. Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness (in association with Journal of Clinical Nursing), 17, 318-328.

Ravert, R. D., Hancock, M. D., & Ingersoll, G. M. (2004). Online forum messages posted by sdolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Educator, 30, 827-834.

Rier, D. A. (2007). Internet social support groups as moral agents: The ethical dynamics of HIV+ status disclosure. Sociology of Health & Illness, 29, 1043-1058.

Robertson, D. (1997). Self-managed care: Internet is key to paradigm shift. Heath Care on the Internet, 1, 11-17.

Rodham, K., McCabe, C & Blake, D. (2009). Seeking support: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of an Internet message board for people with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Psychology & Health, 24, 619-634.

Rodriquez, J. (2013). Narrating dementia: Self and community in an online forum. Qualitative Health Research, 23, 1215-1227.

Rose, J. H., Radziewicz, R., Bowmans, K. F., & O'Toole, E. E. (2008). A coping and communication support intervention tailored to older patients diagnosed with late-stage cancer. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 3, 77-95.

Rozzell, B., Piercy, C. W., Carr, C. T., King, S., Lane, B. L., Tornes, M., Johnson, A. J & Wright, K. B. (2014). Notification pending: Online social support from close and nonclose relational ties via Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 38, 272-280.

Rui, J. R., Chen, Y., & Damiano, A. (2013). Health organizations providing and seeking social support: A Twitter-based content analysis. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 669-673.

Ryan, S. (2010). Trust and participation in online usenet self-help communities. International Journal of Self Help and Self Care, 5, 43-72.

Saarnio, I., & Johnston, W. L. (2010). Finding support through use of the Internet: Surviving cancer as a family and helping co-survivors thrive. In C. A. Marshall (Ed.), Surviving cancer as a family and helping co-survivors thrive: Disability insights and issues (pp. 119-121). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Salem, A. D., Bogat, G. A., & Reid, C. (1997). Manual help goes on-line. Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 189-207.

Salonen, A. H., Kaunonen, M., Åstedt-Kurki, P., Järvenpää, A.-L., & Tarkka, M.-T. (2008). Development of an Internet-based intervention for parents of infants. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 64, 60-72.

Salzmann-Erikson, M., & Eriksson, H. (2013). Fathers sharing about early parental support in health-care – virtual discussions on an Internet forum. Health and Social Care in the Community, 21, 381-390.

Sandaunet, A.-G. (2008). A space for suffering? Communicating breast cancer in an online self-help context. Qualitative Health Research, 18, 1631-1641.

Sanders, M., Calam, R., Durand, M., Liversidge, T., & Carmont, S. A. (2008). Does self-directed and web-based support for parents enhance the effects of viewing a reality television series based on the Triple P – Positive Parenting Programme? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 924-932.

Sarkadi, A., & Bremberg, S. (2005). Socially unbiased parenting support on the Internet: A cross-sectional study of users of a large Swedish parenting website. Child: Care, Health & Development, 31, 43-52.

Sarriera, J. C., Abs, D., Casas, F., & Bedin, L. M. (2012). Relations between media, perceived social support and personal well-being in adolescence. Social Indicators Research, 106, 545-561.

Scharer, K. (2005). Internet social support for parents: The state of science. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 18, 26-35.

Scharer, K. (2005). An Internet discussion board for parents of mentally ill young children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 18, 17-25.

Schotanus-Dijkstra, M., Havinga, P., van Ballegooijen, W., Delfosse, L., Mokkenstorm, J., & Boon, B. (2014). What do the bereaved by suicide communicate in online support groups? Crisis, 35, 27-35.

Schultz, P. N. (2002). Providing information to patients with a rare cancer: Using Internet discussion forums to address the needs of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 6, 219-222.

Schultz, P. N., Stava, C., Beck, M. L., & Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R. (2003). Internet message board use by patients with cancer and their families. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 7, 663-667.

Schwab, R. (1995-96). Bereaved parents and support group participation. Omega, 32, 49-61.

Seale, C. (2006). Gender accommodation in online cancer support groups. Health, 10, 345-360.

Shadden, B. B., & Agan, J. P. (2004). Renegotiation of identity: The social context of aphasia support groups. Top Lang Disorders, 24, 174-186.

Shahab, L., & McEwen, A. (2009). Online support for smoking cessation: A systematic review of the literature. Addiction, 104, 1792-1804.

Sharf, B. F. (1997). Communicating breast cancer on-line: Support and empowerment on the Internet. Women and Health, 26, 65-84.

Shaw, B. R., Hawkins, R., Arora, N., McTavish, F., Pingree, S., & Gustafson, D. H. (2006). An exploratory study of predictors of participation in a computer support group for women with breast cancer. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 24, 18-27.

Shaw, B. R., Hawkins, R., McTavish, F., Pingree, S., & Gustafson, D. H. (2006). Effects of insightful disclosure within computer mediated support groups on women with breast cancer. Health Communication, 19, 133-142.

Shaw, B., McTavish, F., Hawkins, R. P., Gustafson, D., & Pingree, S. (2000). Experiences of women with breast cancer: Exchanging social support over the CHESS computer network. Journal of Health Communication, 5, 135-159.

Shaw, B. R., Yeob Han, J., Hawkins, R. P., Mctavish, F. M., & Gustafson, D. H. (2008). Communicating about self and others within an online support group for women with breast cancer and subsequent outcomes. Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 930-939.

Sherman, L. E., & Greenfield, P. M. (2013). Forging friendship, soliciting support: A mixed-method examination of message boards for pregnant teens and teen mothers. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 75-85.

Shoham, S., & Heber, M. (2012). Characteristics of a virtual community for individuals who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 157, 251-263.

Shpigelman, C.-N., Reiter, S., Weiss, P. L. (2009). A conceptual framework for electronic socio-emotional support for people with special needs. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 32, 301-308.

Skinner, A. E. G., & Latchford, G. (2006). Attitudes to counselling via the Internet: A comparison between in-person counselling clients and Internet support group users. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 6, 158-163.

Smith, A. D. (2007). Chronic disease management and the development of virtual communities. International Journal of Electronic Healthcare, 3, 329-352.

Smithson, J., Sharkey, S., Hewis, E., Jones, R. B., Emmens, T., Ford, T., & Owens, C. (2011). Membership and boundary maintenance on an online self-harm forum. Qualitative Health Research, 21, 1567-1575.

Sofka, C. J. (2012). Blogging: New age narratives of dying, death, and grief. In C. J. Sofka, I. N. Cupit, and K. R. Gilbert (Eds.), Dying, death and grief in an online universe (pp. 61-77). New York, NY: Springer.

Sofka, C. J., Cupit, I. N., & Gilbert, K. R. (2012). Thanatechnology as a conduit for living, dying, and grieving in contemporary society. In C. J. Sofka, I. N. Cupit, and K. R. Gilbert (Eds.), Dying, death and grief in an online universe (pp. 3-15). New York, NY: Springer.

Song, H., Nam, Y., Gould, J., Sanders, S. W., McLaughlin, M., Fulk, J., Meeske, K. A., & Ruccione, K. S. (2012). Cancer survivor identity shared in a social media intervention. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 29, 80-91.

Spottswood, E. L., Walther, J. B., Holmstrom, A. J., & Ellison, N. B. (2013). Person-centered emotional support and gender attributions in computer-mediated communication. Human Communication Research, 39, 295-316.

Springer, A., Reck, C. A., Huber, C., & Horcher, E. (2011). Online hypospadias support group data analysis. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 46, 520-524.

Stefanone, M. A., Kwon, K. H., & Lackaff, D. (2012). Exploring the relationship between perceptions of social capital and enacted support online. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 17, 451-466.

Steinmark, A. P., Dornelas, E. A., & Fischer, E. H. (2006). Determinants and barriers to participation in an Internet based recovery program for cardiac patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 13, 353-357.

Stephen, J. E., Christie, G., Flood, K., Golant, M., Rahn, M., Rennie, H., Speca, M., Taylor-Brown, J., & Turner, J. (2011). Facilitating online support groups for cancer patients: The learning experience of psycho-oncology clinicians. Psycho-Oncology, 20, 832-840.

Stewart, M., Letourneau, N., Masuda, J. R., Anderson, S., & McGhan, S. (2013). Impacts of online peer support for children with asthma and allergies: “It just helps you every time you can't breathe well”. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 28, 439-452.

Stjernswärd, S., & Ostman, M. (2007). Depression, e-health and family support: What the Internet offers the relatives of depressed persons. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 12-18.

Stommel, W. (2008). Mein Nick bin ich! Nicknames in a German forum on eating disorders. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13, 141-162.

Stroebe, M. S., van der Houwen, K., & Schut, H. (2008). Bereavement support, intervention, and research on the Internet: A critical review. In M. S. Stroebe, R. O. Hansson, H. Schut, & W. Stroebe (Eds.), Handbook of bereavement research and practice: Advances in theory and intervention (pp. 551-574). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Sullivan, C. F. (2003). Gendered cybersupport: A thematic analysis of two online cancer support groups. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 83-103.

Sillence, E. (2013). Giving and receiving peer advice in an online breast cancer support group. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 480-485.

Suzuki, L. K., & Kato, P. M. (2003). Psychosocial support for patients in pediatric oncology: The influences of parents, schools, peers, and technology. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 20, 159-174.

Swartz, L. H. G., Sherman, C. A., Harvey, M. S., Blanchard, J., Vawter, F., & Gau, J. (2011). Midlife women online: Evaluation of an Internet-based program to prevent unintended pregnancy and STIs. Journal of Women & Aging, 23, 342-359.

Swickert, R. J., Hittner, J. B., Harris, J. L., & Herring, J. A. (2002). Relationships among Internet use, personality, and social support. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 437-451.

Tanis, M. (2007). Online social support groups. In A. Joinson, K. McKenna, T. Postmes & U. Reips (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Internet psychology (pp. 139-154). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Tanis, M. (2008). Health-related on-line forums: What’s the big attraction? Journal of Health Communication, 13, 698-714.

Terbeck, S., & Chesterman, L. P. (2012). Parents, ADHD and the Internet. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 4, 159-166.

Thobaben, M. (2008). Internet web sites specifically designed to provide support for informal caregivers. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 20, 423-425.

Tichon, J. G., & Shapiro, M. (2003). The process of sharing social support in cyberspace. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6, 161-170.

Tong, S. T., Heinemann-LaFave, D., Jeon, J., Kolodziej-Smith, R., & Warshay, N. (2013). The use of pro-ana blogs for online social support. Eating Disorders, 21, 408-422.

Townsend, L., Gearing, R. E., & Polyanskaya, O. (2012). Influence of health beliefs and stigma on choosing Internet support groups over formal mental health services. Psychiatric Services, 63, 370-376.

Trepte, S., Dienlin, T., & Reinecke, L. (2015). Influence of social support received in online and offline contexts on satisfaction with social support and satisfaction with life: A longitudinal study. Media Psychology, 18, 74-105.

Trepte, S., Reinecke, L., & Juechems, K. (2012). The social side of gaming: How playing online computer games creates online and offline social support. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 832-839.

Turner, Warisse J., Grube, J. A., & Meyers, J. (2001). Developing optimal match within communities: An exploration of CMC support communities and traditional support. Journal of communication, 51, 231-251.

Valaitis, R. K., & Sword, W. A. (2005). Online discussion with pregnant and parenting adolescents: Perspectives and possibilities. Health Promotion Practice, 6, 464-471.

Vambheim, S. M., Wangberg, S. C., Johnsen, J. A. K., & Wynn, R. (2013). Language use in an Internet support group for smoking cessation: Development of sense of community. Informatics for Health & Social Care, 38, 67-78.

van Dam, H. A., van der Horst, F. G., Knoops, L., Ryckman, R. M., Crebolder Harry, F. J. M., & van den Borne Bart, H. W. (2005). Social support in diabetes: A systematic review of controlled intervention studies. Patient Education and Counseling, 59, 1-12.

van der Houwen, K., Stroebe, M., Schut, H., Stroebe, W., & van den Bout, J. (2010). Online mutual support in bereavement: An empirical examination. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1519-1525.

Vanderwerker, L. C., & Prigerson, H. G. (2004). Social support and technological connectedness as protective factors in bereavement. Journal of Loss & Trauma, 9, 45-57.

van de Poll-Franse, L. V., & van Eenbergen, M. C. H. J. (2008). Internet use by cancer survivors: Current use and future wishes. Support Care Cancer, 16, 1189-1195.

van Selm, M., Tuil, W., Verhaak, C., Woldringh, G., & Kremer, J. (2008). Chat about what matters most: An analysis of chat contributions posted to an outpatient fertility website. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11, 675-677.

van Uden-Kraan, C. F., Cornelia, F., Drossaert, C. H. C., Taal, E., Seydel, E. R., van de Laart, M. A. F. I. (2010). Patient-initiated online support groups: Motives for initiation, extent of success and success factors. Journal of Telemedicine And Telecare, 16, 30-34.

van Uden-Kraan, C. F., Drossaert, C. H. C., Taal, E., Lebrun, C. E. I., Drossaers-Bakker, K.W., Smit, W. M., Seydel, E. R., van de Laar, M. A. F. J. (2008). Coping with somatic illnesses in online support groups: Do the feared disadvantages actually occur? Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 309-324.

van Uden-Kraan, C. F., Drossaert, C.H.C., Taal, E., Seydel, E. R., van de Laar, M. A. F. J. (2009). Participation in online patient support groups endorses patients’ empowerment. Patient Education and Counseling, 74, 61-69.

van Uden-Kraan, C. F., Drossaert, C. H. C., Taal, E., Shaw, B. R., Seydel, E. R., & van de Laar, M. A. F. J. (2008). Empowering processes and outcomes of participation in online support groups for patients with breast cancer, arthritis, or fibromyalgia. Qualitative Health Research, 18, 405-417.

Varga, M. A., & Paulus, T. M. (2014). Grieving online: Newcomers’ constructions of grief in an online support group. Death Studies, 38, 443-449.

Vayreda, A., & Antaki, C. (2009). Social support and unsolicited advice in a bipolar disorder online forum. Qualitative Health Research, 19, 931-942.

Velillas, J. J. L., Hernández-Aguilar, M.-T., Alonso, C. R. P., Díaz-Gómez, M., Papí, A. G., Espuelas, C. F., & Talayero, J. M. P. (2007). A breastfeeding e-learning project based on a web forum. Breastfeeding Medicine, 2, 219-228.

Vermetten, E., van Middelkoop, C. J., Taal, L., & Carll, E. K. (2007). Online psychotrauma intervention in the aftermath of the tsunami: A community-building effort. Trauma psychology: Issues in violence, disaster, health, and illness, 1, 255-271.

Vilhauer, R. P., Mcclintock, M. K., & Matthews, A. K. (2010). Online support groups for women with metastatic breast cancer: A feasibility pilot study. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 28, 560-586.

Viry, G. (2012). Residential mobility and the spatial dispersion of personal networks: Effects on social support. Social Networks, 34, 59-72.

Wagner, B. (2013). Internet-based bereavement interventions and support: An overview. In M. Stroebe, H. Schut, J. van den Bout (Eds.), Complicated grief: Scientific foundations for health care professionals (pp. 235-247). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

Wagner-Johnston, N. (2013). Computer/online-mediated social support for cancer-related fatigue. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 11, 1211-1217.

Waldron, V. R., Lavitt, M., & Kelley, D. (2000). The nature and prevention of harm in technology-mediated self-help settings: Three exemplars. In J. Finn & G. Holden (Eds.), Human services onine: A new arena for service delivery (pp. 267-393). New York: Haworth.

Walker, K. K. (2014). Cognitive and affective uses of a thoracic outlet syndrome Facebook support group. Health Communication, 29, 773-781.

Walstron, M. K. (2000). “ You know, who’s the thinnest?”: Combating surveillance and creating safety in coping with eating disorders online. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, 761- 783.

Wang, Q. (2010). Using online shared workspaces to support group collaborative learning. Computers & Education, 55, 1270-1276.

Watkins, D. C., & Jefferson, S. O. (2013). Recommendations for the use of online social support for African American men. Psychological Services, 10, 323-332.

Wen, K.-Y., McTavish, F., Kreps, G., Wise, M., & Gustafson, D. (2011). From diagnosis to death: A case study of coping with breast cancer as seen through online discussion group messages. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 16, 331-361.

Wentzer, H. S., & Bygholm, A. (2013). Narratives of empowerment and compliance: Studies of communication in online patient support groups. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 82, 386-394.

Wesemann, D., & Grunwald, M. (2008). Online discussion groups for bulimia nervosa: An inductive approach to Internet-based communication between patients. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41, 527-534.

Webb, M., Burns, J., & Collin, P. (2008). Providing online support for young people with mental health difficulties: Challenges and opportunities explored. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 2, 108-113.

Webber, K. H., Tate, D. F., & Quintiliani, L. M. (2008). Motivational interviewing in Internet groups: A pilot study for weight loss. Journal of the American Diet Association, 108, 1029-1032.

Weinberg, N., Schmale, J., Ukan, J., & Wessel, K. (1995). Computer-mediated support groups. Social Work with Groups, 17(4), 43-54.

Weinberg, N., Schmale, J., Ukan, J., & Wessel, K. (1996). Online help: Cancer patients in a computer-mediated support group. National Association of Social Workers, 21(2), 24-29.

Weinberg, N., Uken, J. S., Schmale, J., & Adamek, M. (1995). Therapeutic factors: Their presence in computer-mediated support group. Social Work with Groups, 18(4), 57-69.

Weinert, C., Cudney, S., & Winters, C. (2005). Social support in Cyberspace: The next generation. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 23, 7-15.

Weis, R., Stamm, K., Smith, C., Nilan, M., Clark, F., Weis, J., & Kennedy, K. (2003). Communities of care and caring: The case of Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 135-148.

Welbourne, J. L., Blanchard, A. L., Wadsworth, M. B. (2013). Motivations in virtual health communities and their relationship to community, connectedness and stress. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 129-139.

Wiljer, D., Urowitz, S., Barbera, L., Chivers, M. L., Quartey, N. K., Ferguson, S. E., To, M., & Classen, C. C. (2011). A qualitative study of an Internet-based support group for women with sexual distress due to gynecologic cancer. Journal of Cancer Education, 26, 451-458.

Winzelberg, A. (1997). The analysis of an electronic support group for individuals with eating disorders. Computers in Human behavior, 13, 393-407.

Winefield, H. R. (2006). Support provision and emotional work in an Internet support group for cancer patients. Patient Education and Counseling, 62, 193-197.

Winzelberg, A. J., Classen, C., Alpers, G. W., Roberts, H., Koopman, C., Adams, R. E., Ernst, H., Dev, P., & Taylor, C. B. (2003). Evaluation of an Internet support group for women with primary breast cancer. Cancer, 97, 1164-1173.

Wood, E. H. (1997). Consumer health on the world-wide web: Gold or Guilt? Health Care on the Internet, 1, 59-72.

Wood, R. T. A., & Wood, S. A. (2009). An evaluation of two United Kingdom online support forums designed to help people with gambling issues. Journal of Gambling Issues, 23, 5-30.

Woodruff, S. I., Edwards, C. C., Conway, T. L., & Elliott, S. P. (2001). Pilot test of an Internet virtual chat room for rural teen smokers. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29, 239-243.

Worotynec, Z. S. (2000). The good, the bad and the ugly: Listserv as support. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, 797-810.

Wright, K. (2000). Computer-mediated social support, older adults, and coping. Journal of Communication, 50, 100-118.

Wright, K. (2002). Social support within an on-line cancer community: An assessment of emotional support, perceptions of advantages and disadvantages and motives for using the community from a communication perspective. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 30, 195-209.

Wright, K. B. (2009). Increasing computer-mediated social support. In J. C. Parker, & E. Thorson(Eds.), Health communication in the new media landscape (pp. 243-265). New York: Springer.

Wright, K. B. (2010). Weak-tie support network preference and perceived life stress among participants in health-related, computer-mediated support groups. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 15, 606-624.

Wright, K. B., Bell, S. B. (2003). Health-related support groups on the Internet: Linking empirical findings to social support and computer-mediated communication theory. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 39-54.

Wright, K. B., Muhtaseb, A. (2011). Personal relationships and computer-mediated support groups. In K. B. Wright & L. M. Webb (Eds.), Computer-mediated communication in personal relationships (pp. 137-155). New York: Peter Lang.

Wright, K. B., & Rains, S. A. (2014). Weak tie support preference and preferred coping styles as predictors of perceived credibility within health-related computer-mediated support groups. Health Communication, 29, 281-287.

Wright, K. B., Rosenberg, J., Egbert, N., Ploeger, N. A., Bernard, D. R., & King, S. (2013). Communication competence, social support, and depression among college students: A model of Facebook and face-to-face support network influence. Journal of Health Communication, 18, 41-57.

Xie, B. (2008). Multimodal computer-mediated communication and social support among older Chinese Internet users. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13, 728-750.

Yan, L., & Tan, Y. (2014). Feeling blue? Go online: An empirical study of social support among patients. Information Systems Research, 25, 690-709.

Ye, J. (2006). Traditional and online support networks in the cross-cultural adaptation of Chinese international students in the United States. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11, 863-876.

Yeh, Y.-C., Ko, H.-C., Wu, J. Y.-W., & Cheng, C.-P., (2008). Gender differences in relationships of actual and virtual social support to Internet addiction mediated through depressive symptoms among college students in Taiwan. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 485-487.

Yoo, W., Chih, M.-Y., Kwon, M.-W., Yang, J. H., Cho, E., McLaughlin, B., Namkoong, K., Shah, D. V., & Gustafson, D. H. (2013). Predictors of the change in the expression of emotional support within an online breast cancer support group: A longitudinal study. Patient Education and Counseling, 90, 88-95.

Yoo, W., Namkoong, K., Choi, M., Shah, D. V., Tsang, S., Hong, Y., Aguilar, M., & Gustafson, D. H. (2014). Giving and receiving emotional support online: Communication competence as a moderator of psychosocial benefits for women with breast cancer. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 13-22.

Yoo, W., Shah, D. V., Shaw, B. R., Kim, E., Smaglik, P., Roberts, L. J., Hawkins, R. P., Pingree, S., Mcdowell, H., & Gustafson, D. H. (2014). The role of the family environment and computer-mediated social support on breast cancer patients’ coping strategies. Journal of Health Communication, 19, 981-998.

Ziebland, S., & Wyke, S. (2012). Health and illness in a connected world: How might sharing experiences on the Internet affect people’s health? Milbank Quarterly, 90, 219-249.

Zrebiec, J. F. (2005). Internet communities: Do they improve coping with diabetes? Diabetes Educator, 31, 825-836.

Zrebiec, J. F., & Jacobson, A. M. (2001). What attracts patients with diabetes to an Internet support group? A 21-month longitudinal website study. Diabetic Medicine, 18, 154-158.